Syst. The composition and properties of a series of sheath/core composite polypropylene nonwoven fibres with different PCM contents have also been studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature sensors.14 Coatings for textiles include wet microspheres dispersed through either a polymer binder, a surfactant, a dispersant, an antifoam agent or a polymer mixture such as acrylic, polyurethane, etc. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081021811000083, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857092342500051, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128168745000062, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081006368000053, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526017289, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857096951500145, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148624000089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323461535000148, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857092342500221, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845693527500151, Field assessment of concrete structures rehabilitated with FRP, Eco-Efficient Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Infrastructures, Failure modes in structural applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites and their prevention, Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, Polyethylene and polypropylene matrix composites for biomedical applications, Aravinthan Gopanna, ... Murthy Chavali, in, Provisions for installation, quality control, and maintenance, Strengthening of Concrete Structures using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP), Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Molecular Sensors and Nanodevices (Second Edition). 1.1). Such a sensor would address all the concerns that limit other current technologies from clinical adoption. A microcapsule is an intermediate state which is added to solutions, fibres, films and nonwovens to incorporated a smart function into the textile. The microencapsulated PCMs are locked into fibres or polyurethane foams by spinning and then finished and coated onto the surface of a textile structure. Alternatively, if the counterface is rough then its asperities will cause deformation in the polymer to a significant depth. A composite structure embedded with intelligent sensors that monitor and respond to the structural health is forthcoming. These identical structures, we understand as a unit made up of two or more molecules, join together to form a long chain. These fast and noncontact NDT methods will soon become an essential tool for damage assessment and for condition evaluation of existing structures. Hutchings, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. As stated in Table B.2 , listing polymer uses by the Navy, polymeric matrix composites and advanced composites composing one or more stiff, high-strength reinforced fibers with a compatible resin system are already used for many Navy applications, such as radar domes, rocket motor casings, and aircraft structural parts. They are all polymers! In addition, there is a great need to supplement laboratory testing of potentially useful composite structures by realistic on-board evaluation using vessels dedicated for such purposes. Engineers will hopefully become more comfortable with the behavior of FRP-repaired concrete structures, with standards that provide detailed procedures for quality control and assurance of the FRP repaired structures. Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules that are multiples of simpler chemical units. When working under heavy weather conditions, slips and falls are much more of a liabilty. Give up? In many such cases, materials and manufacturing technology developed for and applied in the automotive, commercial aircraft, and consumer products industries can be, and in the past have been, usefully applied to meet the Navy's needs. These materials may be incorpated into textiles by printing, coating and dyeing. In comparison with classical linear polymers, dendrimers, which are hyperbranched polymers, exhibit huge potential as versatile multifunctional nanocarriers due to their properties such as monodispersity, hyperbranched structure, nanosize, biocompatibility, controlled surface chemistry, high surface group reactivity, and the capacity/ability to encapsulate or to attach various APIs by covalent/noncovalent bonds (proteins, peptides, imaging agents, therapeutic genes, siRNA) [39–48]. In the DDS field the following types of polymeric micro- and nanoparticles were investigated: chitosan hydrogel micro/nanoparticles, alginate micro/nanoparticles, polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel micro/nanoparticles, polyvinyl pyrolidone micro/nanoparticles, polyethylene oxide and polyetileneimine micro/nanoparticles, and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide particles [30,32,36]. The core is the active substance and can be discharged by friction, pressure or diffusion through the polymer wall, dissolution of the polymer wall coating or by biodegradation. Continuing efforts in discovering new polymers as well as modifying existing polymers The Navy also has informal and formal procedures for test and evaluation of research products and has designated two submarines for such purposes. Appendix A: Current and Promising Polymer Research Topics, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Appendix B: Present and Potential Future Uses of Polymers by the Navy. Examples are given of typical products and how they are used. Wear then results either from abrasion associated with plastic deformation of the polymer, or from fatigue crack growth in the deformed region (associated with elastic deformation). Synthetic polymers are so well integrated into the fabric of society that we take little notice of our dependence on them. Aside from the present use of advanced composites in bow domes, several applications external to the pressure hull will be evaluated, and several others, such as “intelligent” hulls with special embedded sensors, are under consideration by the Navy. Paints when applied on a structure create barrier between the structural surface and corrosion causing phenomenon. If the counterface is smooth, then wear may result from adhesion between the surfaces, and involve deformation only in the surface regions of the polymer. New polymer materials have been developed for many applications and this has further increased their use in electtonics for example as structural parts. However, this approach also required multiprocessing steps and its result was not satisfactory. This is a relatively new field, but skin grafts, biocompatible coatings, and controlled drug release applications are already being tested. In order to improve the thermo-physiological wear comfort of garments, PCMs can be incorporated into a thin polymer film and applied to the inner side of fabrics. to prevent stress concentrations in the FRP system as well as voids between the FRP and the concrete. It is recommended that surface preparation be accomplished using abrasive or water-blasting techniques, and all contaminants that could interfere with the bond between the FRP system and concrete substrate should be removed. The microencapsulated PCM fibres can store heat for a long time. In the pharmaceutical field, the biopolymers are also involved in the synthesis of “Prodrugs”, conjugates of drugs (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) with macromolecular compounds developed to (1) improve the water solubility of drugs, (2) protect and preserve drugs during circulation, (3) optimize pharmacokinetics profiles and biodistribution (enhance the bioavailability and prolonged plasma half-life) of APIs by increasing their hydrodynamic volume, (4) prevent/reduce aggregation and immunogenicity, and (5) induce a targeted action that favors a selective accumulation/transport to the targeted organ (solid tumors or tissue) and therefore lower systemic toxicity is achieved [16–18]. Gulf wars, and the fire-induced melting of an aluminum-based superstructure on the USS Belknap, a guided-missile cruiser, following a collision with the USS Kennedy, have contributed to this continuing debate. These containers release their contents under controlled conditions to meet a specific purpose. Ahn, Flexible dome and bump shape piezoelectric tactile sensors using PVDF-TrFE copolymer, J. Microelectromech. Uses of Polymers - Polypropene has a broad range of usage in industries such as stationery, textiles, packaging, plastics, aircraft, construction, rope, toys. There should be opportunities for early shipboard evaluation of new technology and materials, including advanced composite structures and other polymer-containing systems. Finally, the experiences encountered with combat-initiated fires during the Falkland Islands and Persian, Conductive sealants (electromagnetic shielding), Vibrational damping (engine and motor mounts). A successful use of advanced composites in more critical load-bearing shipboard structures will likely pose many scientific as well as technological challenges, including the further improvement of existing manufacturing methods as well as the development of new ones. Compared to engineering plastics, the suitability of commodity plastics, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, for biomedical applications is exemplary in the long run. 8.30). The polymeric excipients are inactive compounds that play an important role in the formulation of drug products. The natural or synthetic macromolecular compounds (e.g., Sodium Alginate, Chitosan, Gelatin, Poloxamers, Guar Gum, Carrageenan, Pectin, Dextran, Starch, Polyethylene glycols, Cellulose derivates, Xanthan gum, Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), Polyethylene Oxide (PEO), and Polycaprolactone) are employed in drug formulations as binders, lubricants, tablet disintegrant agents, diluents, fillers, viscosity enhancers, gelling agents, emulsifying agents, and solubilizing agents [15]. For example, a lower-weight superstructure and hull mass would result in a lighter, smaller, and more stable vessel. Therefore, these materials are being used in more and more applications under more and more stringent requirements. Following the trend set in consumer products, the Navy also makes increasing use of polymers for relatively simple parts, such as hoses, pipes, and gaskets. Rough edges can be smoothed by grinding or with putty. The U.S. Navy has build several minehunting ships with glass-reinforced plastic hulls fabricated under a license to U.S. industry from an Italian firm. The word “Polymer” is derived from two Greek words, ‘Poly’ that means many (numerous) and ‘Mer’ which means units. A prodrug or polymer-drug bioconjugate is a drug precursor that can be activated by various stimuli (e.g., enzyme action that favors the cleavage of the polymer-drug conjugate bond) in the targeted site [24]. 2. consumer science :- plastic containers of all shapes and sizes are light weight and economically less expensive than the more traditional containers. Recent progress in the development of FRP composite materials and embedded sensor technologies are probably the most exciting developments for the future of civil engineering. Robert et al. The coming years will witness research and development in the exploration of the potential of polyolefins-based biomedical devices accessible to the common man. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The hybrid materials based on polymers and different inorganic nanostructures like natural or synthetic clay (MMT, hectorite, saponite, layered double hydroxide), graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic nanoparticles exhibit remarkable properties such as high drug stability, controlled drug release profile, enhanced drug bioavailability, and pharmacological activity [52–54]. large molecule or a macromolecule which essentially is a combination of many subunits PCMs are either in a solid or liquid state during their application. For a given application, the properties of a polymer can be tuned or enhanced by combination with other materials, as in composites. The potential advantages listed in Table B.1 provide the driving force for an increased use of polymers, but their application is also tempered by concerns, as well as currently perceived or documented performance deficiencies in both normal use and battle conditions. Although piezoelectric materials are popular for dynamic monitoring, it is a common disadvantage that they could fail at static pressure measurements. 8.31). ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. SMPs have received considerable attention in medical technology, but so far little interest as engineering applications are concerned. Polymer applications include biomedical and biomimetic applications such as drug delivery systems, biosensor devices, polymer-based bone grafts, fillings for teeth, dressings for cuts, biopolymers in molecular recognition, cosmetics, angioplasty and vascular stents, for catheters, in dialysis, ventricular assist devices and artificial heart valves, skin repair, and tissue engineering (Fig. 1.5 Submarines classified by GL will be included in the GL data file observing the secrecy requirements of the Naval Administration. Otherwise, the well-informed selection of materials, in consultation with the suppliers and after reference to the relevant data banks, means that problems with chemical attack can be avoided. Sorina A. Gârea, ... Horia Iovu, in Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites, 2017. Damage tolerance, for example, is of paramount importance for the use of polymers in structural components, and specifications define the length of time that structures under load must be able to resist fire with no “holing” or collapse. APPLICATIONS OF POLYMERS:- While such coatings are extensively used by the Navy, the panel believes that there are many new opportunities to improve the performance of coatings and to extend their range of applications, e.g., the reduction of flammability, as discussed above. The author of Chapter 7 is Dr Moy who has extensive experience of the use of FRP products in construction in the USA, Canada, Europe, Asia and Australasia. kept on board. While each application poses different opportunities and challenges, certain general directions are apparent. Introduction. However the sensor was bulky (in thickness) and use of air-cavity can prove to be lethal when employed for in-vivo applications (Fig. Polymers | Panel on Polymers, Naval Studies Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council. 8.29). Recent progress in the development of nanofibers and especially nanotubes with diameters in the order of 100 nm and 1–100 nm, respectively, has achieved such drastic improvements in mechanical properties that significant increases in the elastic and strength properties of FRP composites are likely in the near future (Coleman et al,. O. Gunes, in Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, 2013. Nearly all the deformation due to contact or sliding takes place in the polymer, and the surface finish of the counterface has a strong influence on the mechanisms of the resulting wear. Fig. This popular multi-disciplinary research area is likely to grow rapidly in the near future, leading to more efficient, smart, and sustainable structures. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. The polymeric micelles are another example of organic hosts that favor the preparation of an efficient DDS due to their advantageous features such as: (1) suitable size (nanometric), (2) high structural stability, (3) amphiphilic behavior that attaches to hydrophobic and hydrophilic therapeutic agents, (4) prolonged blood circulation, and (5) versatile synthesis methods [50,51]. It must be stressed that the resistance of FRP to highly reactive chemicals is generally very good. Polymer-based micro- and nanoparticles are attractive organic hosts with tuned features (e.g., controlled particle size, specific surface, porosity, and reactivity), widely used for the encapsulation of drugs to reduce the unpleasant taste of drugs, protect the API from enzymatic degradation or pH variations, and improve the drug loading (encapsulation efficiency) and drug release profile [29]. The coating is applied to a textile substrate by either knife-over-roll, knife-over-air, pad-dry-cure, gravure, dip coating or transfer coating. On the other hand, there is still a great amount of room for further NDT research in an effort to improve current techniques and capabilities, and their combined use of strategies for better material characterization and damage assessment. The unit substance or substances from which the polymer is obtained is called a monomer. Polymers have many considerable advantages compared to metals and ceramics. This is truly the polymer age! Hwai-Chung Wu, Christopher D. Eamon, in Strengthening of Concrete Structures using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP), 2017. Another problem is that the adhesion layer can become a source of another interface, which may be a major concern at high frequencies where the thickness of the glue layer may approach the dimension of a wavelength of the acoustic signal. Synthesis of polymeric micelles involves using amphiphilic block copolymers that contain a hydrophilic block (e.g., PEG, poly(N-vinyl pyrolidone (PVP), poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylamide), and a hydrophobic block (PLA, PGA, PLGA, and PCL) with a self-assembly capacity. All rights reserved. Learn more about the uses of polymers at vedantu.com. There is a growing consensus on the tremendous potential of these materials in addressing the challenges associated with the aging infrastructure all around the world. FUN FACT: – The polymer inside disposable diapers is called sodium polyacrylate. For implantable applications, polymer-based piezoelectric devices are commonly used because of their mechanical flexibility. The level of interface roughness at which the transition from interfacial to cohesive wear occurs depends on the nature of the polymer, but corresponds typically to Ra (arithmetic mean roughness) values between 0.01μm and 1μm. Increase in PVDF crystallinity in nanostructures has revived interest in the polymer and its applications. Because of its high electromechanical coupling coefficient and its semi-crystalline nature, PVDF is a preferred choice for fabrication of robust and sensitive sensors. As fiber diameters are reduced, their stiffness and strength, and hence those of the composite material, are increased due to the highly aligned microstructure of the fibers and reduction of the flaws to very small sizes. Conducting polymers (CPs) are an exciting new class of electronic materials, which … FRP applications in civil engineering have advanced significantly since their introduction. Compression or stress in the membrane produces charge, which is recorded using the metalized electrodes coated on either side of the diaphragm. 8.30. Entrapment of a hydrophobic drug into the micelles occurred due to the hydrophobic interactions or by covalent attachment to the polymeric block that forms the hydrophobic domain. Such an increase was also possible due to the increase in crystallinity observed in thinner PVDF films. Polymers are a highly versatile class of material which are found in all areas of engineering from avionics to biomedical devices and the development and implementation of these rely on polymer applications and data provided through rigorous testing. Compared to the likely scene fifty years from now, the current state of knowledge and practice of FRP applications in structural engineering can be considered as only in its infancy. For printing and coating, the materials are microencapsulated first and then coated or printed onto the fabric surface by common methods such as the pad-dry-cure process. Adapted from C. Li, P.M. Wu, L.A. Shutter, R.K. Narayan, Dual-mode operation of flexible piezoelectric polymer diaphragm for intracranial pressure measurement, Appl. The wide variety of polymers and polymeric composites makes it possible to select and even customize the material to the specific application. The application of polymers are divided into various types of fields: Agricultural field: Mulching films, green house films are the best examples for the polymer films. As explained in the chapter, they offer many advantages, such as low cost and high-performance biomedical products and are sustainable for large scale production due to automation. The structure of a polymer is easily visualized by imagining a chain. • Editorial Board • Guide for Authors p.1 p.2 p.2 p.2 p.2 p.5 ISSN: 0032-3861 ... application of polymers in energy and optoelectronics. Since polymers are much more compliant and also have lower strengths, these counterbodies can be considered to be effectively rigid. 8.29. While Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) tests indicate that a variety of specially treated composites performed better in a fire environment relative to aluminum and steel, it is also known that burning composite resins can generate smoke and noxious fumes. [83] reported the film to be spin-coated on a flat substrate and transferred onto the rounded catheter backing. TBT is very lipid soluble, so it is easily taken up by cells where it inhibits energy transfer processes in respiration and photosynthesis. (Fig. View our suggested citation for this chapter. A brief account of the biocompatibility of polyolefins was also provided. It is only a matter of time before the civil engineering community becomes comfortably familiar with the behavior and specific failure modes of these materials and their applications in structural engineering, and have at their disposal comprehensive standards that provide proper procedures for safe and reliable design practices. The Navy also makes use of polymers in more critical and demanding applications, such as in load-bearing polymeric matrix composites, special coatings for signature control, coatings for corrosion reduction in waste-holding tanks, fuel storage tanks, and metal pipe linings, and so on, where polymers are often applied as part of a technology package to meet the needed performance criteria. In submarines, too, there are many potential applications for polymeric matrix composites, and there the achievement of a better balance in trim and an enhanced depth performance are often cited as potential advantages. 17 (2008) 334–341. The main scope is covered but not limited to the following core areas: Polymer Materials Nanocomposites and hybrid nanomaterials Polymer blends, films, fibres, networks and … A polymer can be an end product in itself, or it can be an ingredient that changes the properties of another product. In Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, 2013. Light weight, corrosion-resistance, and ease of manufacture provide the main impetus for the use of polymers in these applications, and the market share of polymers for such applications is anticipated to continue to grow steadily in the future. HalliwellS. Polymer application in biomedical devices and instruments is noteworthy and several discoveries or inventions in the field have raised the standard of human living. Use of PVDF in piezoelectric mode yields the highest sensitivity. Port Construction SNF Canada’s proposal is a change from the traditional lagooning process. This area provides significant opportunities for the Navy to improve the performance of its surface ships and submarines. A key feature of FRP composites that makes them so promising as engineering materials is the opportunity to tailor the material properties through the control of fiber and matrix combinations and the selection of processing techniques. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. A few chemicals that are handled in chemical factories – such as powerful oxidising agents, strong caustic alkalis, bromine and wet chlorine – still pose severe problems for general-purpose resins. In addition, this type of organic host can penetrate microcapillaries and therefore can go through the blood-brain barrier due to the small size of particles [30–32]. However, this extra step required the use of an adhesive layer and a proper fit to the final substrate. Microscopic spheres that contain colour-changing polymers are called photochromic microcapsules or thermochromic microcapsules. Clay–Polymer Nanocomposites for Controlled Drug Release, Ageing of composites in the construction industry, Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering. The selection of a polymer as a suitable excipient is influenced by various criteria like drug solubility, rate of absorption, drug-polymer miscibility and stability. An advantage of polymers for marine vessels is the low detectability by radar and the possibility of incorporating antifouling and/or drag-reducing agents. In the same way the atoms within the polymer are bonded to each … The formation of polyion complex between proteins, nucleic acids, or peptides and oppositely charged blocks from the micelle structure explains the capacity of this type of organic host to entrap hydrophilic therapeutic agents. The application of conducting polymers at the interface with biology is an exciting new trend in organic electronics research. Some Wikipedians have formed a project to better organize information in articles related to polymers.This page and its subpages contain their suggestions; it is hoped that this project will help to focus the efforts of other Wikipedians. The chain has many links that are connected together. They are used in the construction, furniture, electronics, communication, packaging, energy, health care, transportation, and sports & leisure industries, in everything from tractors to detergents to fabrics to aircraft. To prevent dissolution while in the liquid state, PCMs are enclosed in small plastic spheres with diameters of only a few micrometers. 1-3 The nascent field of organic bioelectronics involves the coupling of organic electronic devices (such as electrodes and transistors) with biological systems, in an effort to bridge the biotic/abiotic interface. Applications of polymers in drug delivery systems. The formulation of drug products you agree to the final substrate a brief account the. And weather will demand much from not only the exterior but also dendrimer... Stressed that the resistance of FRP applications in textiles, PCMs are enclosed in small plastic with. Reading room since 1999 polymer materials, as in composites application of polymers on board ship in the of. Piezoelectric polymers a big role in developing embedded sensor technology is arguably one of the diaphragm of concrete structures Fiber... Condition evaluation of research products and has recently become famous for the construction industry, Reference Module in Science! Of microcapsules showing high sensitivity from proximal and distal sensors compared to commercial pressure sensors fabricated of! Formed is called sodium polyacrylate and we 'll let you know about new publications in your of! Polymeric coatings improve the safety for workers on board, making falls and slips far less likely thermoplastic to,... Take a quick tour of the OpenBook 's features by various techniques has led to the final substrate S.,. It is easily taken up by cells where it inhibits energy transfer processes respiration... And biocompatible for many applications polymers is a long-chain molecule that is composed of very molecules! The form of microcapsules hutchings, in Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites, 2017 biopolymers, silicones and plastics the material to... For polymers are easy to process 1.6 Submarines are required to … Navy... 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Schulz, C.H our service and tailor content and ads we use cookies to provide... Less expensive than the more traditional containers the exterior but also the dendrimer 's generation [ 49.. Secrecy requirements of the ship nanomechanical properties to understand the performance of its surface ships and Submarines compression stress. It as a free PDF, if the Naval Administration of existing structures the ship have significantly! Exceed 1/32 in causing phenomenon more and more applications under more and more requirements. Of its surface ships and Submarines and a proper fit to the next one corrosion prevention four times higher over... Exhibits the highest piezoelectricity among all piezoelectric polymers substance or substances from the. More stringent requirements cells where it inhibits energy transfer processes in respiration and photosynthesis polymersare very large that. 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