757-764 (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.162). We can categorise pollution by where we find it — in soil, water or air — or we can look at different pollution types, such as chemicals. EEA Web Team, Software updated on More than 180 countries agreed May 3 to ban production and use of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts, and PFOA-related compounds under the … Australian action On 14 June 2017, the European Union’s restriction on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (CAS no. EU targets PFASs in drinking water. investigated by HBM4EU to better understand exposure and effects on health. (OJ L). Polyfluorinated PFAS contain both fluoro-carbon and hydro-carbon segments where the non-fluorinated part can degrade and ultimately form perfluorinated PFAS acids, such as PFOA and PFOS. The total number of sites potentially emitting PFAS is estimated to be in the order of 100 000 in Europe (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2019). 166-176 (DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.006). This includes the regulation of PFAS as a class, or as subgroups, based on toxicity or chemical similarities. The current use of these substances in the EU is low. Decreased exposure to PFAS may be achieved by using consumer products from green labels and buying brands free from PFAS. Unfortunately, the Teflon coating chips off when scratched by rough-edged kitchen utensils or abrasive scouring pads. EU, 2006, Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC (OJ L). Denmark will be the first country to ban PFAS chemicals, which have been linked to cancer, elevated cholesterol and decreased fertility, from food packaging, starting next year. Fenton, S. E., et al., 2009, ‘Analysis of PFOA in dosed CD-1 mice. PFOA and its salts are likely to have a similar risk profile as PFOS.This is why the European Union is closely following the on-going risk assessment activities and the availability of safer alternatives.When safer alternatives become available, the marketing and use of PFOA will be restricted. Regulation (EU) No 207/2011: entries 44 and 53 have been are deleted (substances severely restricted under Regulation (EU) No 850/2004 – substances as persistent organic pollutants). Measures to reduce PFAS pollution are in place, mainly addressing well-known PFAS substances and their precursors. PFOS was listed as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in Annex B (restriction) of the UNEP Stockholm Convention on POPs in 2009. PFOA is authorized in Europe for the use in plastic food contact materials for repeated use (refer to the FPF background article). PFOA, its salts and its precursors were added to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999, also called the List of Toxic Substances. But there are no such restrictions on this carcinogen in the U.S. EWG found 13 PFAS compounds in nearly 200 cosmetics and other personal care products. This has led to contaminated drinking water around factories in Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands, and around airports and military bases in Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom (IPEN, 2018; Hu et al., 2016). While both well-known and novel PFAS have been detected in drinking water in non-EU countries (Xiao, 2017; Kaboré et al., 2018; Dauchy, 2019), at present there is little monitoring data available in the EU for drinking water. 192-212 (DOI: 10.1016/j.cocis.2015.07.004). Monitoring conducted by the authorities of the Veneto Region found PFOS in 63-100 % of the locations sampled and PFOA in 100 % of the sites. Question: Is perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (CAS No. The EU annual average environmental quality standard De afkorting staat voor poly- en perfluoralkylstoffen. Kaboré, H. A., et al., 2018, ‘Worldwide drinking water occurrence and levels of newly-identified perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances’, Science of The Total Environment 616-617, pp. The move towards zero pollution requires that product life cycles are made safer from the start (Warner and Ludwig, 2016), based on the concept of safe-and-circular-by-design (van der Waals et al., 2019). PFOA has been classified as a SVHC since 2013 (EU REACH Reg EC No 206-397-9). Exposure to higher levels PFOA may occur in the workplace where they are produced or used. When you ask about the most popular cookware type with no health risk, then you may be … Üblicherweise wird bzw. This stipulated that foam extinguishing agents containing PFOA may no longer be sold from July 4, 2020. Cousins, I. T., et al., 2019, ‘The concept of essential use for determining when uses of PFASs can be phased out’, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 21(11), pp. Levels of PFOA in the highly exposed population were 0.2 to 26 times greater than the EFSA BDML5, while for PFOS, the figure was 0.3-1.3 times. 149-159 (DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.10.026). Throughout life, people and animals accumulate PFAS in their bodies. of PFOS have now been phased out, banned or restricted under a number of UK, EU and international regulations. General and specific guidance to consumers and business on how to find PFAS-free alternatives is provided by consumer organisations and some national institutions (see Danish EPA, German EPA and Swedish KEMI). The EEA is an agency of the European Union. Little Pro on 2017-06-19 Views: Update:2019-11-16. 80-90 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.004). PFOA and its salts are likely to have a similar risk profile as PFOS.This is why the European Union is closely following the on-going risk assessment activities and the availability of safer alternatives.When safer alternatives become available, the marketing and use of PFOA will be restricted. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also banned under Annex A of the Stockholm Convention in … Please make sure javascript is enabled in your browser. In 2017, the European Directive 2017/1000 / EU entered into force. On May 3rd 2019, more than 180 countries agreed to ban the production and use of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts, and PFOA-related compounds under the international Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).. Sørli, J. Decreased exposure to PFAS may be achieved by using consumer products from green labels and buying brands free from PFAS. Production and use of PFAShave been the main sources of PFAS contamination over time (Wang et al., 2014a, 2014b; Hu et al., 2016) for instance from fluoropolymer production installations and from the use of PFAS-containing firefighting foams (Figure 1). Costs to society arising from PFAS exposure are high, with the annual health-related costs estimated to be EUR 52-84 billion across Europe in a recent study (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2019). This is the first of two assessments of substances collectively known as perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS), and therefore the conclusions are provisional and will be reviewed while the second part is completed. 1438-1446 (DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.089). While the long-chain PFAS accumulate in humans, animals and sediment/soil, the short-chain PFAS accumulate in the environment (German EPA, 2017, 2018) due to their persistency and high mobility in air and water. Danish EPA, 2018, Risk assessment of fluorinated substances in cosmetic products, Survey of chemical substances in consumer products No 169, accessed 2 December 2019. Dauchy, X., 2019, ‘Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water: Current state of the science’, Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health 7, pp. It is currently not possible to perform in-depth environmental and health risk assessments of all chemical substances in use in Europe because of the great variety of chemicals and their diverse uses. The production and use of PFAS in products has resulted in the contamination of drinking water supplies in several European countries. Regulation (EU) No 552/2009: entries 33 and 39 have been deleted (substances severely restricted under Regulation (EC) No 2037/2000 – substances that deplete the ozone layer). There is little knowledge on uptake via skin and the lungs, which can be severely affected by PFAS (Nørgaard et al., 2010; Sørli et al., 2020). (EU) 2019/1021). EU, 2019, Regulation (EU) 2019/1021 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on persistent organic pollutants (Text with EEA relevance.) Volume 97, xiv + 616 pp, Marcel Dekker, New York. Beginning in July 2020, the use of PFOA – one of the thousands of fluorinated compounds known as PFAS – will be restricted in cosmetics and other personal care products sold in the EU. Emissions to the environment occur via industrial waste water releases, as well as emissions to air from industrial production sites followed by deposition onto soil and water bodies. In the EU, manufacture and essentially all uses of PFOS are now prohibited under a Directive (2006/122/EC) that came into force in June 2008. PFAS either are, or degrade to, persistent chemicals that accumulate in humans, animals and the environment. In food, fish species at the top of the food chain and shellfish are significant sources of PFAS exposure. Consumer exposure may also occur via other routes such as via floor, wood, stone, and car polishing and cleaning products. PFOA and its precursors are currently restricted under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation (EU, 2006), including their presence in products made or imported into the EU. 591-599 (DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.006). Wang, Z., et al., 2014a, ‘Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, Part I: production and emissions from quantifiable sources’, Environment International 70, pp. The proposal to establish a new ‘group limit’ value for PFAS of 0.5 µg/L, in addition to limits for 16 individual PFAS of 0.1 µg/L in drinking water under the recast of the EU Drinking Water Directive is currently under consideration at EU level. Disposition of PFOA in tissues and fluids from pregnant and lactating mice and their pups’, Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 27(3-4), pp. Generally, regulated PFAS have been substituted with other short-chain and polymeric PFAS. From 4 July 2020, PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), its salts and other compounds related to PFOA are banned under Annex XVII, entry 68 of REACH. Using PFAS-free personal care products and cooking materials and avoiding direct contact with PFAS-containing products helps to reduce exposure. Koponen, J., et al., 2018, ‘Longitudinal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in children’s serum’, Environment International 121, pp. in a concentration equal to or above 25 ppb of PFOA including its salts or 1 000 ppb of one or a combination of PFOA-related substances. IPEN, 2018, Fluorine-free firefighting foams (3F) viable alternatives to fluorinated aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF), Independent Expert Panel Convened by IPEN Stockholm Convention POPRC-14 Rome. The European Union (EU) publishes a list of air carriers that are banned from entering the airspace of any of its member states for failing to meet EU regulatory oversight standards. (2013/39/EU). 216-224 (DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq094). Comprising more than 4 700 chemicals, per and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of widely used, man-made chemicals that accumulate over time in humans and in the environment. PFOA, its salts and its precursors have also been used in the past in many industrial processes, commercial products, and products available to consumers. Regrettably, several of these ‘novel’ PFAS and their short chain degradation products are also persistent. Information on Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), for responding to chemical incidents. Read more. The EU, which is a key party to the UN’s Stockholm convention, agreed to a complete ban on the chemical, effective from July 4th 2020. On 14 June 2017, the European Union’s restriction on perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (CAS no. According to the draft of the POP Regulation, the manufacture, placing on the market and use of articles containing PFOA is prohibited from 04.07.2020 unless they fall under the specific exemption. Figure 1 summarises current knowledge of the health impacts of PFAS. In Europe, PFOS has been banned since 2008 and PFOA will be totally prohibited by 2020, although right now it’s hard to find a pan that uses Teflon in the old continent. In 2013, PFOS and its derivatives were included in the Directive on “Environmental Quality Standards” (EQSD). In June 2019, the European Council of Ministers (EC, 2019) highlighted the widespread occurrence of PFAS in the environment, products and people, and called for an action plan to eliminate all non-essential uses of PFAS (Cousins et al., 2019). In some areas, concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the most exposed citizens were above proposed benchmark levels for adverse effects in humans. As a result, complementary and precautionary approaches to managing PFAS are being explored. EFSA has proposed to revise the tolerable intakes of two chemical contaminants to which humans are exposed through the food chain as a result of environmental pollution. PFOS is now regulated as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in EU. Deze stoffen worden al decennialang toegepast in allerlei industriële en andere processen en producten (o.a. EPA is beginning the necessary steps to propose designating PFOA and PFOS as “hazardous substances” through one of the available statutory mechanisms, including potentially CERCLA Section 102. 143-157 (DOI: 10.1007/s00216-012-6492-7). OECD, 2018, ‘About PFASs - OECD Portal on Per and Poly Fluorinated Chemicals’, accessed 2 December 2019. around the globe. For references, please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/human/chemicals/emerging-chemical-risks-in-europe or scan the QR code. Published 1 July 2014 Last updated 7 August 2018 — see all updates Danish EPA, 2014, Screeningsundersøgelse af udvalgte PFAS forbindelser som jord- og grundvandsforurening i forbindelse med punktkilder, Miljøprojekt No 1600. PFAS is een stoffengroep, die in Nederland – maar ook in Europa – verspreid in het milieu wordt aangetroffen. substances and PFOA. Part 2. The OECD provides further information on groups of PFAS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related substances. Taking precautionary risk management actions for groups of chemicals and promoting the use of chemicals that are ‘safe-and-circular-by-design’ could help to limit future pollution. Less is known about potential releases of PFAS from other uses such as oil extraction and mining (Kissa, 2001), and the production of medical devices. Nguyen, M. A., et al., 2017, ‘Spatial distribution and source tracing of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water in Northern Europe’, Environmental Pollution 220, pp. A systematic review’, Environmental Evidence 7(1), p. 4 (DOI: 10.1186/s13750-017-0114-y). Some countries have set national limit values for water and soil (Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden), for textiles (Norway) and for food contact materials (Denmark). In June 2019, Denmark announced a ban on PFAS-treated food contact materials, to enter into force in 2020. This decrease in levels in humans is likely to result from reduced exposure as a result of regulatory and non-regulatory action on consumer products, such as food contact materials (Susmann et al., 2019) and textiles (Greenpeace, 2017). Several PFAS are sufficiently volatile to be considered long-range transboundary air pollutants, implying that emissions outside Europe are transported into Europe where they may accumulate in cold areas such as the Arctic (EEA, 2017). PFOA perfluoro octanoic acid is een door mensen gemaakte chemische stof, die van nature niet in het milieu voorkomt. Valerie Flynn (April 16, 2015). On June 14, 2017, the European Union (EU) published Regulation (EU) 2017/1000 [2] to regulate PFOA (CAS 335-67-1), its salts and certain related substances as a completely new entry 68 … 1313-1318 (DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1306615). As mentioned above, PFOA and PFOS are priority hazardous substances under the Water Framework Directive (EC, 2017; EU, 2000). Where are PFAS found in Europe’s environment? European Commission (March 19, 2015). PFAS have been used in firefighting foams, non-stick metal coatings for frying pans, paper food packaging, creams and cosmetics, textiles for furniture and outdoor clothing, paints and photography, chrome plating, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. EU REACH - Specific Questions & Situations. For comparison, the European Commission proposed a limit value of 0.1 µg/L for each individual PFAS in the 2018 recast of the EU Drinking Water Directive. Stone, and car polishing and cleaning products Towards a Sustainable chemicals Strategy. ( EQSD ) your browser udvalgte PFAS forbindelser som jord- og grundvandsforurening i med. The restriction limits in EU biota ( Land et al., 2018 ) Toxicology Program,,. Found to be particularly contaminated by PFAS Web CMS works best with following:... Project Reports, 2012, ‘ Detection of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances ( PFAS ) are a group man-made! 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